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Did God Replace the Rib He Took From Adam
Atheists Pg > Atheists Bible Challenge
Eve was formed from Adam's Rib
Written by Stephen Michael Leininger
Posted 06/09/2024
A: Introduction
In Genesis 2 we read:
So the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and while he slept took one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh; and the rib which the LORD God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man. Then the man said, “This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man” (Gen 2:21-23).
Is there reason to believe these passages of Scripture are meant to be interpreted literally, historically? According to Scott Hahn[1] and Pope Pius XII, it is historical.[2] Furthermore, the genre of Genesis indicates that God intended Genesis 2 to be interpreted literally—as history. God went out of His way to describe the instrumental biological potentialities used to make Eve. As a description of a creation event, Genesis 2 presents a distinct biblical anomaly.
In Genesis 1-2, God briefly describes how the different species were made. For example: “Let the earth sprout” (Gen 1:11), “Let the waters teem” (Gen 1:20), and “Let the earth bring forth” (Gen 1:24). It should be noted that these first two examples reveal their creation but do not directly address the prime matter from which they were formed. That changes when discussing Adam’s creation, though it still remains consistently brief; “The Lord God formed man* of dust from the ground” (Gen 2:7).
*Clarification of terms: Due to confusion in the literature of terms to describe rational man in the image and likeness of God, this paper will use the term man to identify such a definition. I will use animal man to identify all Homo sapiens that are not in the image and likeness of God, i.e., Imago Dei. It is clear from Scripture that the word “man” refers to beings in the Imago Dei (cf. Gen 2:5).
As a statement of final summation of the creation of all biological living organisms from primordial matter, Scripture reads, “Out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast . . . and bird” (Gen 2:19). God uses about four to six words to describe each creation event and that’s it, except for one—and only one. In sharp contrast, God used approximately one hundred sixty words to describe Eve’s creation from Adam’s rib. He didn’t simply say that Eve was made from the dust of the earth. No. He detailed the biological science employed by the Genesis writer to describe Eve’s creation from Adam’s rib.
Above and beyond the general “dust of the earth,” Scripture specifically reveals the origin of organic materials from which Eve was formed and the biological potentialities the Holy Spirit used to create her from said “dust of the earth.” Thus, we can deduce that God actively intervened in her formation—and, based on his detailed explanation, he wanted us to know that he intervened. He wanted us to know that non-rational animal man was not part of our man’s ancestry.
The genealogies in Scripture support this interpretation. A genealogy is defined as a “Record or study of descent involving a tracing backward or forward of the ancestry of a nation, tribe, family[3], or individual.[4] Scott Hahn is more specific. He defines genealogy as, “A tracing of the ancestry or descent of a person [emphasis added].”[5] Animals can never be described as Persons, despite some pet lovers’ desire to do so. Personhood can only refer to rational humans in the Imago Dei. By the same definition, animals can never be identified as persons.[6]
Neither of the above genealogy definitions allows for the inclusion of animals in biblical genealogies. If Adam and Eve had been born of animal man, then Jesus would have had animals as ancestors, which is theologically impossible. Since biblical genealogies trace the succeeding generations of families of man, it is clear that animal man is not part of that family.
There are some who make the claim that our first parents started their existence as animals and then, at some unspecified subsequent point in time, had a rational soul breathed into them (thus replacing their animal soul). Accepting that scenario leads to some serious theological problems that must be brought to light and addressed. Those theological problems are identified and discussed in Part III of the blog post titled, “Mitochondrial Eve: Should Christians Be Worried.” In Part I, Magisterial documents help make the case.
In Genesis, we are told that God took Adam’s rib and used it to form Eve. However, there is a great deal of information that God does not provide in these passages. For example:
·  Which rib did God take?
·  Which part of the rib did he take: all or only a portion?
·  Which portion?
·  What happened with the space left after the rib was taken?
·  Did God leave it empty?
·  Did God replace it with a new rib, or did He regenerate the rib from what was left?
While the answers to all the above questions likely contain important information, not every answer is essential to answering the questions posed in this article. That question is: Did God replace the rib that He had taken from Adam to form Eve? If yes, how?

B: Can Human Ribs Naturally (Biologically Speaking) Regenerate?

According to Robert Becker:
In the human, true regeneration is limited to the healing of fractures of the long bones.  . . . The essence of the true regenerative process [e.g., the salamander’s ability to regenerate entire limbs] is the appearance at the site of injury of a mass of primitive, presumably totipotent cells, called the blastema.  . . . [While humans are not capable of natural regeneration[7][8] of missing long bones, it is interesting to note that] The capability of the process is best indicated by noting that the salamander foreleg is anatomically equivalent to the complex human arm.[9]
Normally, men and women have twelve pairs of ribs, ten fixed-positioned and two floating.[10] However, there are rare congenital circumstances in which more than twenty-four ribs may be present. The first is what are termed supernumerary ribs.[11] There are two subcategories of supernumerary ribs, cervical (0.5–1% of the population) and lumbar. The latter is less common than the cervical.
Because this phenomenon is congenital, it is classified as a morphological consideration and, therefore, not truly relative to our discussion of Adam’s rib. After creating man, God said that all creation was not just good, but very good. In Genesis, God removed a rib, which thus needed to be regenerated in order to return Adam to his original state of biological perfection—that state God characterized as “very good.” Part of the ribs’ functions is to protect the biological heart and the lungs from potentially fatal injury.[12] By not replacing the missing rib, Adam’s body would cease to function as God originally designed it. Thus, creation would have ceased to be very good.

C: Can Mammalian Bones Be Scientifically Made to Regenerate, Despite Lack of Natural Ability?

The answer to the question posed in the title of this section has been experimentally shown to be yes. By studying creatures such as salamanders, flatworms, etc., scientists have discovered the biological components necessary to accomplish said regeneration. Some, but not all, of those necessary components/conditions are:

C:1—Biologically Generated DC Electrical Current

Becker tells us:
Libet and Gerard described the existence of a steady DC potential existing longitudinally from front to back in the brain, with the frontal (olfactory) lobes being normally negative by several millivolts (mV) to the occipital lobe[13][14].[15]
Continuing, he writes:
[A] number of investigators had demonstrated that applied [DC] currents (well below the level of heating) did influence general growth patterns in a non-random fashion.  . . . In 1960 we repeated Burr’s measurements[16] of the DC field on the surface of the intact salamander using, however, the much more stable and sensitive instrumentation then available. Rather than a simple dipole field, we found a complex field pattern with an obvious relationship to the underlying anatomy of the central nervous system[17].[18]
Research has shown that at least one device (EStim), which is designed to generate DC current, is efficacious in promoting bone regrowth.[19]
According to materials provided by the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD):
“Electrical devices are integral to medicine, as physicians use low-level electricity to stimulate bone growth, reduce chronic pain, pace the heart and even improve hearing,” said dermatologist Patricia K. Farris, MD, FAAD, clinical assistant professor, Tulane University, New Orleans.[20]

C:2—Proper Innervation by the Central Nervous System (CNS).

For regeneration to occur, innervation must reach the distal end of the missing post-amputated bone. According to Becker:
Singer, again using the amputated foreleg of the adult frog, obtained the same amount of regeneration by surgically augmenting the nerve supply to the extremity.  . . . [until] in 1958 when Zhirmunskii reported that the [DC] current of injury was directly related to the extent of innervation[21].  . . . By the mid-1950’s, Singer published a series of papers in which he demonstrated the dependence of limb regeneration in the salamander on the presence of a threshold amount of nerve tissue in the amputation stump.[22] He was even able to produce a small amount of limb regeneration in the adult frog (normally a [non-]regenerator) by transplanting additional functioning nerve tissue into an amputation stump. The evidence suggested that the nerves somehow controlled normal growth.[23]
However, the above-mentioned innervation was insufficient for regeneration without the presence of the next criteria.

C:3—Sufficient Presence of Epidermal Tissue

Without the formation of an epidermal (skin) cap over the distal end of the amputated bone, nerve-skin junctions cannot form. Thus, the formation of a blastema could not occur, which also means that regeneration could not occur.
According to Becker:
As early as 1962, Rose had called attention to the importance of a peculiar relationship between the epidermis and the nerves in the salamander limb regeneration process. The first event in such regeneration is the overgrowth of the epidermis alone (not the dermis) over the cut end of the amputation stump. Following this the cut ends of the nerves remaining in the amputation stump begin to grow into this epidermal “cap,” where they form peculiar “synapse-like” junctions with the epidermal cells. This “neuroepidermal junction” (NEJ) is apparently the primary structure in the regenerative process, since following its formation the blastema appears.[24]
Becker and Cullen attempted to demonstrate this concept by surgically inserting the sciatic nerve into the epidermis of rats which was subsequently sown closed over the end of the amputated bone, thus creating a “skin-cap.”[25] Incidentally, rats do not possess the natural ability to regenerate limbs.
Continuing, Becker writes:
We attempted to surgically produce such neuroepidermal junctions in animals that normally lacked regenerative ability.[26] Hind limb amputations were done in a series of adult rats. Experimental animals had the sciatic nerve surgically inserted into the epidermis, while control animals had the nerve similarly mobilized but not inserted into the epidermis.  . . . By the third postoperative day, the sciatic nerve in the experimental animals had grown laterally into the epidermis where it made junctions with the epidermal cells similar to the NEJ of the salamander. In the same group, blastemas appeared by the fifth day and regeneration of the major part of the hind limb ensued. No junctions were formed in the control group [into which the sciatic nerve was not inserted] and neither blastemas nor regenerative growth occurred[27].[28]

C:4—Proper Polarity of Involved Nerve Cells

Studies have found that bone regeneration occurs at the negative polarity of DC electrical current in nerve cells, i.e., the distal end of the amputated limb.[29]
Becker writes:
In the salamander, the positive potential very quickly (3 days) returned to the original baseline but then became increasingly negative in polarity, coinciding with blastema formation and declining thereafter as regeneration occurred. These observations regarding polarity and duration of the potentials have recently been confirmed by Neufeld using the same techniques[30].[31]
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) sends information to or from the CNS. It does so through either sensory and/or motor nerves. The PNS is anatomically and operationally continuous with the CNS. The sensory nerves are afferent (carrying information to the CNS). The motor nerves are efferent, i.e., carrying information from the CNS to, for example, the rib,[32] which is surrounded by muscle subject to motor neurons with negative polarity. It is the biological information coming from the CNS, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, that produces the negative polarity that allows for the full regeneration of the amputated limb. Becker writes, “The currents appear to be nonionic in nature, and there is some evidence that they may be similar to semiconducting type currents.[33]
He continues:
[R]eproducible DC voltages were found; however, their polarity appeared to be dependent upon the direction of the normal nerve impulse travel. Sensory nerves were polarized distally positive, while motor nerves were polarized distally negative[34].[35]
What has been described in the above paragraphs does not necessarily constitute an assertion that it accurately represents what actually occurred in Genesis 2:21-23. Human beings cannot regenerate an entire long bone through natural means. But then again, we must further clarify the definition of natural.

D: The Nature of Pre-fallen Man versus Post-fallen Man

The information in this Section will help to understand one, i.e., Section E:1, of the two possibilities that likely account for the how part of the regeneration of Adam’s rib.
Pre-fallen Adam existed in a state of Original Justice. As such, the body was in complete subjection to the perfect spiritual soul.[36] To understand Original Justice, the absence or presence of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit within the human spirit of Adam’s spiritual soul must also be understood. Furthermore, the overflow from his inner heart to the lower powers of his soul must also be understood. Scripture tells us, “You brood of vipers! How can you speak good things, when you are evil? For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks” (Matt 9:4).
The consequences of the loss of Original Justice through original sin are detailed in Genesis 3. A more detailed explanation of the concupiscence experienced by Adam and Eve (their eyes being opened) can be read in “Original Sin: Part I of III.” In Scripture, we read, “He who believes in me, as the scripture has said, ‘Out of his heart shall flow rivers of living water.’ Now this he said about the Spirit, which those who believed in him were to receive; for as yet the Spirit had not been given [because the indwelling Holy Spirit, i.e., Supernatural Grace, was lost after Original Sin], because Jesus was not yet glorified” (Jn 7:38-39) because we lost the Holy Spirit when our first parents sinned. We know that the Holy Spirit originally dwelt within pre-fallen Adam and Eve’s spiritual souls because Scripture tells us so.
St. Catherine of Siena (also a Doctor of the Church) reveals that the degree to which the body cooperates with the spiritual soul, which is actively seeking God’s Will, will be rewarded at the resurrection of the dead on the last day.
She writes:
[At the resurrection,] all will see my [God’s] generosity and mercy shine forth in the blessed as these receive the fruit of the blood of the Lamb. And they will see how all the sufferings the blessed endured remain as adornments on their bodies, like ornamentation imprinted on cloth—not from the body’s own excellence, but because the soul from her fullness will imprint on the body the fruit of its labors, to shine outwardly, since it was her partner in virtue [emphasis added]. Just as a mirror reflects a person’s face, just so, the fruit of their labors will be reflected in their bodies. When the darksome ones see such honor, and themselves deprived of it, their suffering and confusion will increase. For on their bodies will appear the mark of their evil deeds, with pain and excruciating torment.[37]

E: Does the Human Heart Play a Role in Rib Regeneration

E:1—The Vagus Nerve and the Human Heart

Is the biological heart important to this topic? There are good reasons why Scripture refers to the heart (830 times) much more than the mind (273 times). It used to be believed the brain (mentioned zero times in Scripture) almost completely controlled the heart’s actions. We now know that is not correct.
Catholics believe that, during the celebration of the Mass, the species of bread and wine are transubstantiated and become the real body, blood, soul, and Divinity of Jesus Christ. Not a symbol! Not a mere representation! The substances of bread and wine are no longer present but are hidden under their accidents only of bread and wine. In at least five such Eucharistic miracles, scientific testing supports the claim that the consecrated host is the literal body, blood, soul, and divinity of Christ. This is so because the tissue made visible during the miracle has been scientifically shown to be living tissue from a human heart.[38]
Why does God hide the Real Presence? God knows our human sensitivities. He knows we would be repulsed by eating Jesus’ visible flesh and drinking his blood. Most, if not all, would not, could not, do it. That being the case, God removes any obstacles that would prevent this problem.
Aquinas tells us that God hides the physical and carnal (but also glorified and transcendent) body and blood of Jesus under the accidents of bread and wine. He writes,
Why see we not the flesh? Because, if the flesh were seen, it would revolt us to such a degree, that we should be unable to partake of it. And therefore in condescension to our infirmity, the mystical food is given to us under an appearance suitable to our Minds.[39]
I would add that the consecrated host remains the real and physical flesh and blood of Jesus, nonetheless.
God revealed to St. Hildegard of Bingen (one of only four women declared Doctors of the Church):
[The consecrated host] appears in human eyes to be bread and wine, for human frailty is so delicate that people would shudder at receiving bleeding flesh and trickling blood.”[40]
Hmm! This wording doesn’t exactly convey the message that the substance of Jesus hidden in the Eucharist is only an ethereal or strictly spiritual representation of his physical body.
In almost every Eucharistic miracle in which the flesh of Jesus is visibly revealed, tests show that what is present is biological heart muscle (myocardial) tissue. In numerous cases, rigorous scientific testing has verified their miraculous nature. Relative to this article, tests have revealed the presence of the vagus nerve in cross-sections of the tissue from the Lanciano Eucharistic miracle. A list of Eucharistic miracles can be found here.
From Healthline,[41] we read that the vagus nerve is the longest cranial nerve in the body. It runs from the brain stem to part of the colon. It’s responsible for various bodily functions, including digestion, heart rate, and breathing. The vagus nerve, also known as the pneumogastric nerve, stimulates:
1). Muscles in the pharynx, larynx, and the soft palate, which is the fleshy area near the back of the roof of the mouth
2). Muscles in the heart, which happens to be in very close proximity to the rib
3). Involuntary contractions in the digestive tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and most of the intestines.
In addition to the above, the Motor functions of the vagus nerve, which possess negative polarity at the distal ends (see Section C:4 above) of the nerve include:
·  digestion
·  heart rate
·  breathing
·  cardiovascular activity
·  reflex actions, such as coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting
According to Andrew Marino, the neural connections of the heart:
[C]an accelerate or depress its activity. Applied Electromagnetic fields could influence heart function by changing peripheral vascular resistance, by a direct action on the electrical system of the heart muscle.  . . . White blood cells . . . are intimately involved in local inflammation and tissue-repair [emphasis added] processes.[42]
Hmm. Heart muscle. Very interesting. Of the approximately 200,000 fibers in the mid-cervical section of the right and left vagus nerve,[43] roughly ninety percent (180,000) are afferent (ascending the body), i.e., sending information to the brain; approximately ten percent (20,000) are efferent (descending the body), i.e., receiving information from the brain. No other part of the body has that high a ratio of afferent to efferent nerve fibers.[44]
According to Kevin Tracey at the Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, science is making new discoveries regarding the vagus nerve. Using electrical devices called vagus nerve stimulators, scientists have documented the value of employing them to effectively treat epilepsy, depression, migraines, and obesity.[45]
One of those discoveries is its role in detecting the presence of proteins called cytokines in response to illnesses or injuries, which then trigger the body’s immune response. When it does, the vagus nerve informs the brain of their presence. In return, the brain signals the spleen to start producing white blood cells, reducing that immune response.
According to Tracey, “Vagus nerve stimulation [using a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with DC current] causes white blood cells to shut down cytokine production enough to avoid runaway inflammation, but not so much that our immune system is disarmed completely.”[46] See E:1 for the significance of the fact.

E:2—Intrinsic Electromagnetic Energy

Becker writes:
Intrinsic electromagnetic energy inherent in the nervous system of the body is, therefore, the factor that exerts the major controlling influence over growth processes in general. The nerves [of which the vagus nerve is prominent: see E:1 above], acting in concert with some electrical factor of the epidermis, produce the specific sequence of electrical potential changes that cause limb regenerative growth. In animals not normally capable of regeneration this specific sequence of electrical changes is absent. However, it can be simulated by artificial means, resulting in blastema formation and major regenerative growth even in mammals.[47]
The literature contains much information about ribs growing and repairing more rapidly than does any other bone, but scientists are unsure why. According to Kuwahara et al.:
Craniofacial surgeons often extract large segments of rib cartilage and bone for autologous repair of skeletal defects in other parts of the body, and in post-operative visits have noted extensive regeneration at the donor rib site[48][49][50].  . . . Fractures to major bones often heal slowly or incompletely, especially in older people, and large bone injuries do not repair naturally. By comparison, rib bones show an unusual capacity to regrow and repair themselves even when a large portion is damaged. Previous research suggests that the connective tissue around the ribs helps to support and co-ordinate bone healing. Yet it is currently not clear why ribs have a greater capacity to repair these large injuries compared to other bones.[51]
A combination of new and older (mid–  to late 1900s) research can provide us with insights into the reasons behind the above phenomenon. Those insights were detailed in sections C:1 to C:4 above.
The human heart is the largest generator of electromagnetic energy in the body. Each component of the landscape of the nervous system lies in very close proximity to a vein and an artery through which blood is pumped. What bodily organ is the closest in proximity to the source of that electromagnetic field? The rib. In fact, blood itself generates electromagnetic radiation via the hydrogen splitting of water[52], which accounts for 90% of blood plasma.[53] The photons generated provide entropy–reducing[54] information[55] that goes into making our DNA, RNA, and all the proteins they produce.[56]
Another of the important means by which the heart communicates information to and through the CNS[57] and, therefore, the rib is pulse waves from the beating heart.[58][59][60][61]

E:3—Miracles of the Human Heart in the Catholic Church

Here is an example of that spiritual/biological phenomenon:
St Gertrude the Great had a great devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. As a result of her purity of heart, she was granted a mystical encounter with St. John the Evangelist, the beloved Apostle who was given the singular honor of resting his head on the bosom/physical heart of Jesus during the Last Supper. In the Spirit, St. John took her to Jesus so that she, too, could lay her head on the bosom of Jesus. Then, as she felt the constant pulsations (the spiritual heart does not pulsate) of the Divine Heart and rejoiced exceedingly thereat, she said to St. John: “Beloved of God, didst not thou feel those pulsations when thou were lying on the Lord’s breast at the Last Supper?” “Yes,” he replied; “and this with such plenitude, that liquid does not enter more rapidly into bread than the sweetness of those pleasures penetrated my soul [clearly indicating Jesus’ physical—pre-crucified—heart and resurrected glorified heart], so that my spirit became more ardent than water under the action of a glowing fire.”[62]
Note that the sweet pleasures of Jesus’ beating physical heart (thus generating an electromagnetic field) penetrated St. John’s spiritual soul. Also note: as was revealed above, science has shown that the heart’s pulse wave energy communicates with the body.
In E:2 above, we talked about the value of intrinsic electromagnetic energy for bone regeneration. One of two doctors chosen to study the alleged 1992 Eucharistic miracle in Buenos Aires is quoted by cardiologist Dr. Franco Serafina. He writes:
Dr. Segovia de Sasot once described an area [of the revealed flesh of Jesus] that, in her exact Spanish words, ‘parecía later ritmicamente’—‘seemed to be rhythmically beating.’ Only one area, and only on one occasion: no camera recorded the event.[63]
Interestingly, in 1998, that exact same miraculous 1992 host that Dr. Sasot had observed as pulsating was captured pulsating as would a human heart. It lasted for about 20-30 seconds and then returned to its previous non-pulsating state. The video of this event can be viewed here. And it doesn’t stop there.
On July 24, 2022, a newer Eucharistic miracle of the same type took place in Guadalajara, Mexico. There is a live video of the miracle. It occurred in a chapel where the Stations of the Cross were being said. During this alleged miracle, the sacramental veil is lifted, revealing the beating heart of Jesus in the Eucharist—the heart of flesh as it is described in Scripture (Ez. 11:19, 36:26). Furthermore, two separate cameras (the second is seen in the video) simultaneously captured the same event. This fact helps to reduce the likelihood of photographic trickery.
An important feature of both videos is that the beating heart generates electromagnetic energy, i.e., light. In both videos, the light generated by the pulsating heart is visible to the naked eye. The visible light disappears when the host stops pulsating.
According to Serafini:
It should be appreciated that an inflammatory reaction like the one we saw in the Buenos Aires and Tixtla tissues [Eucharistic miracles] is proof of the concurrent presence of a complete organism that is still living with a functioning immune system, an organism capable of coordinating a complex cascade of events involving several populations of appropriately stimulated and activated immune system cells. . . .the miraculous tissue was living and functioning because it was mysteriously connected to a complete, invisible body [which was shielded by the Eucharistic veil of bread and wine—c.f. Aquinas, ST III, Q.77, co.].[64]
According to Fr. Antony Netikat regarding the Eucharistic miracle at Sokolka Poland in 2008:
These two specialists [in pathology at the University of Medicine of Bialystok] were Professor Maria Sobaniec-Lotowska and Professor Stanisloaw Sulkowski. Their findings were reported by pathologist Microwslaw Rucki in these words: “I had no trouble distinguishing the structure of the Host and the muscle tissue and tiny blood vessels that appeared fused on to it. These ill-matched materials were so bonded together so as to form a single, unbroken, and astonishing structure of bread—which is at the same time human—flesh. To achieve such a fusion artificially is impossible. Hence the two professors were forced to acknowledge that the matter of the Host had mysteriously assumed the form of heart muscle tissue.[65]
A photograph of the subject of Rucki’s observation can be seen here.
As discussed earlier, the formation of a blastema (see C:3) is an essential element for beginning the regeneration of all or part of bone fractures/amputations. Does the power of the Holy Spirit dwelling within the spiritual heart of man, in this case, Adam in the state of Original Justice, cause other types of multiplication, such as the formation of a blastema? Let us look at some organic examples. In Part III of the blog series about Covenants, the synergy between water and light to affect cellular activity at every level was revealed. Furthermore, this interaction can result in the starting, stopping, speeding up, or slowing down of the metabolic processes of the human body—the functioning of proteins expressed by the body’s DNA.[66] Biological healing is an appropriation of the power of the Holy Spirit, choosing to multiply healthy cells to heal illness or injury.
Contrary to old and traditionally held beliefs, research is beginning to dispel the idea that hormones are the primary cause for triggering cell division (mitosis) in growing embryos.[67] Ongoing research in the field of biological light (both generated and stored) now suggests it is signaling primarily coming from light in the UV spectrum originating from within the cell itself, termed mitogenic radiation (MGR) that causes and directs mitosis.[68]
Research suggests that MGR, accompanied by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reaction,[69] provided active oxygen and structured water was present, are the primary catalysts.[70] In other words, hormones are involved, but they are reacting to information that comes from photons of light, which were produced in part by the presence of dynamically structured vicinal water molecules.[71] Remember also that the spiritual soul itself is light, and the rational soul is the substantial form of the body.[72] Could it be that the spiritual soul is the light that guides both cell mitosis and differentiation?[73] Science indicates it is.[74] It seems to be the logical conclusion.
As we proceed further, it becomes clear that all of the essential biological potentialities (see the list of five of them below) for Adam’s rib to be fully regenerated are coming together through the overflow of the inner heart, i.e., human spirit, in which the Holy Spirit dwells.
1) DC electrical current (see C:1 above),
2) the presence of an epidermal skin “cap” (see C:3 above),
3) a source of innervation (essential for the formation of a blastema from the skin cap). See C:2 above,
4) negative polarity (see C:4 above, and
5) the presence of an electromagnetic field (see E:2 above).
This hypothesis will be further supported in a subsequent section of this article.

F: Two Likely Possibilities for the Regeneration of Adam’s Rib

I believe there are likely two different modalities by which Adam’s rib was wholly regenerated. The likely reason why God would desire the rib to be replaced has already been discussed earlier (see section B above. The two likely possibilities for the regeneration of Adam’s rib are:

F:1—Option 1: The Holy Spirit Directed the Regeneration of Adam’s Rib Utilizing the Instrumentality of the Body’s Biological Potentialities

F:1:a—The Overflow of the Indwelling Holy Spirit

In Genesis 2:7 we read, “Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being” (Gen 2:7). We know this was a different life than existed in animal men because in Gen 2:5 Scripture tells us that there was no man to till the earth. Rational life only comes via the indwelling of the Holy Spirit within the inner human heart. Below are some pertinent thoughts on the indwelling:
1). “You brood of vipers! How can you speak good things, when you are evil? For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks” (Mt 12:34).
2). According to the Catechism, “The spiritual tradition of the Church also emphasizes the heart, in the biblical sense of the depths of one’s being, where the person decides for or against God (Cf. Jer 31:33; Deut 6:5; 29:3; Isa 29:13; Ezek 36:26; Mt 6:21; Lk 8:15; Rom 5:5.).”[75]
3). “The heart is the dwelling-place where I am, where I live; according to the Semitic or Biblical expression, the heart is the place ‘to which I withdraw.’ The heart is our hidden center, beyond the grasp of our reason and of others; only the Spirit of God can fathom the human heart and know it fully.”[76]
4). “God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us” (Rom 5:5).
5). “I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and you shall be clean from all your uncleannesses, and from all your idols I will cleanse you. A new heart I will give you, and a new spirit I will put within you; and I will take out of your flesh the heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh [a biological heart that is designed by God to overflow with the light of grace]. And I will put my [S]pirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes and be careful to observe my ordinances” (Ez 36:25-27).
As a direct result of the overflow of Adam’s inner heart, the soul (the part of the pre-fallen spiritual soul that controls the function of the corporeal component of man’s Essence) caused his body to regenerate the rib taken by God. Pope St. John Paul II, by interpreting Genesis 2, gives further support for this indwelling.

F:1:b—John Paul II on Genesis 2

Quoting from an as-yet unpublished paper written by myself, we read:
According to John Paul II, the specific language in Genesis 2 indicates that “sleep” occurs in preparation for a creative event. “ ‘Man’ (ˊadam) falls into that ‘sleep’ in order to [emphasis added] wake up ‘male’ and ‘female.’ ”[77] With reason, he seems to believe the rib indicates the heart.[78] The Holy Spirit dwells in the spiritual heart (Cf. Romans 5:5.), which overflows to the human heart. The Holy Spirit brings about an ecstasy that envelopes Adam, who is in a perfect state of Imago Dei.[79]
Speaking of the Holy Spirit dwelling in the human spirit, evidence exists that the Divine Light of the Holy Spirit produces profound physical effects on the function of the biological heart.
Continuing the quote from the above paper:
As John Paul points out, God takes one of his ribs while Adam sleeps and forms the woman. At this point, “we come across the distinction ˊis-ˊissah [or ˊish-, ˊishshah] for the very first time in Scripture.”[80] In response to skeptics, ribs possess the natural ability to partially regenerate themselves[81] though it cannot naturally regenerate the entire rib. Consequently, after taking one of Adam’s ribs, God knew it would regenerate itself, keeping Adam’s body as perfect as it was when originally created.
In Genesis, we are told that God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam. According to JP II’s thoughts, the word sleep in this passage, could very well have been a state of ecstasy.[82] The Hebrew word for Adam’s sleep is tardemah and the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scripture) translates the word into ekstasis (ecstasy).[83]
Theologian Francois-Xavier Durrwell tells us that the Holy Spirit is the ecstasy of the Father and the Son.[84] This is very significant. The Holy Spirit is the ecstasy of God. The same Spirit dwells in the inner heart of man and overflows to the rest of the body. In F:1:c below, we will see more clearly how the overflow of the inner heart in which the Holy Spirit dwells can produce profound physical effects. Based on a vision received from God, St. Hildegard of Bingen writes about the heart, “The heart is the life and structure of our entire organism. It contains the whole body. Within it our thoughts are arranged and our will is brought to maturity.”[85]
John Paul tells us, “For the Jews, there was no precise distinction between ‘body’ and ‘soul.’ ”[86] As such, Genesis 2:23 can be interpreted as Adam saying Eve was “being of my being.” This phrasing would have been inappropriate had Eve been born, not made. The phrase clearly identifies Adam as the source material for the forming of Eve—an external expression of Adam’s Person-ality, understood philosophically.[87] Personhood can only refer to rational humans made in the Imago Dei.[88] By the same definition, animals can never be identified as persons.[89] A being whose genealogical ancestor is an animal, one not in the Imago Dei, could never partake in the Trinitarian dialogue that IS Love itself,[90][91] the Trinitarian Life of God. Animal love is purely biochemically based, i.e., hormonal.
When we attempt to interpret Genesis 2, we cannot overestimate the power of the biological beating heart of a man in a state of ecstasy as a result of the indwelling spirit. We learn of the profound impact of the indwelling Spirit on the biology of Neri, Galgani, and Padre Pio in the next section.

F:1:c—Does/Can the Indwelling of the Holy Spirit Produce Physical and Biological Effects

Let’s look at another example of how the Holy Spirit’s indwelling produces physical, i.e., biological effects.
[Phillip Neri] kept the longest vigils and received the most abundant consolations. In this catacomb, a few days before Pentecost in 1544, the well-known miracle of his heart took place. Bacci describes it thus: ‘While he was with the greatest earnestness asking of the Holy [Spirit] His gifts, there appeared to him a globe of fire [reminiscent of Pentecost], which entered into his mouth [symbolizing his scriptural mouth, i.e., the body—SML] and lodged in his breast; and thereupon he was suddenly surprised with such a fire of love, that, unable to bear it, he threw himself on the ground, and, like one trying to cool himself, bared his breast to temper in some measure the flame which he felt.  . . . All his body began to shake with a violent tremour; and putting his hand to his bosom, he felt by the side of his heart, a swelling about as big as a man’s fist.  . . . The cause of this swelling was discovered by the doctors who examined his body after death. The saint's heart had been dilated [expanded—SML] under the sudden impulse of love, and in order that it might have sufficient room to move, two ribs had been broken, and curved in the form of an arch. From the time of the miracle till his death, his heart would palpitate (beat-SML) violently whenever he performed any spiritual action [emphasis SML].”[92]
Such violent palpitations would have generated a powerful electromagnetic field.
The miracle above shows that the Light of the indwelling Holy Spirit produces a physical impact on the heart of flesh. How does this prove that the Divine Light of the indwelling Holy Spirit causes the physical heart to produce physical changes? The next saint’s experience provides us with that proof.
St. Gemma Galgani had similar experiences and impacts as St. Neri but with a few additional important details.
St. Galgani experienced an increasingly intense burning beginning in the center of her heart and then radiating outward. She describes the sensation as a hot poker penetrating her, so intense she needed ice to cool it. The pain and burning were not merely spiritual but also physical. The skin in the area of the heart was burned. Galgani said that while this burning caused great pain to her body, she did not desire that excruciating pain to stop because of the sweetness it produced in the very depths of her soul (i.e., the mouth/body breathed in the Divine, causing the inner heart to overflow and be expressed via the body, especially the human biological heart).[93]
The palpitations of her physical [SML] heart during this phenomenon were so great that the chair she sat in or the bed she laid upon would shake, even though she remained quite calm. Like Phillip Neri, St. Gemma’s heart was also expanded. So much so that three of her ribs were broken at almost right angles. Keep in mind that this helps us to understand the account of Adam’s rib. “When Galgani’s body was exhumed, physicians found that decomposition of the body had begun—except for the heart. It was found incorrupt, full of blood, fresh, healthy, and flexible.”[94]
When Venerable Father Germanus Ruoppolo C.P. placed a thermometer on Galgani’s skin, the mercury immediately ascended to the upper limit of the gauge. This type of manifestation of the Spirit’s dwelling in the heart was also experienced by St. Padre Pio (his skin temperature, especially during Mass, was over 120 degrees, which was the upper limit of the thermometer).[95]
At this point, we must understand the two different types of fire in Scripture. The fire of the Holy Spirit is, well, spiritual. It does not produce heat (explained below). It is a holy fire of desire (thirst is a metaphor for that holy desire for union with God or to be with a deceased family member). It is a Holy desire to know God fully. As Jesus tells us, “I came to cast fire upon the earth, and would that it was already kindled” (Lk 12:49)! Jesus is referring to the same fire that descended upon the Apostles at Pentecost. It was not physical fire.
Following is how we can know for certain that Divine light produces physical changes to our biology as well as to our spirit. Divine light does not create thermal heat. For example, the burning bush in Exodus 3:2 was not consumed by the fire. Heat capable of consuming a combustible material can only be generated by created light existing within created time. Heat is the result of a photon traveling in a sine waveform that interacts with the electrons of physical matter with which it comes into contact. An example of such matter is human flesh, e.g., the flesh of the biological heart. This contact causes energy transference, which results in the generation of heat.[96] The human heart generates such discreet bundles of electromagnetic energy, i.e., photons. It generates a lot of them.
Since a sine wave can only exist within created time, it cannot be Divine Light (which exists in the Eternal Now) that is generating the heat. This is because Divine Light is not material and is outside of time and space. A sine wave is a product of something traveling in a roller coaster–type pattern—a peak followed by a valley followed by another peak and so forth. There is no such thing as “this” followed by “that” in Divine Light.
Let’s recall the physical effects of the indwelling Divine Light of the Holy Spirit.
1). Physical and quantifiable thermal phenomena,
2). Enlarged hearts causing the breaking of ribs,
3). Pulsations so strong it caused a chair to violently shake,
4). A heart that would palpitate violently whenever Neri performed any spiritual/charitable action and,
5). Pulsations that caused effects on the spiritual soul. [Note: the scriptural mouth not only sends/breathes out the overflow of the inner heart, it also takes/breathes in that which affects the inner heart.]
All of the above examples reveal that God could easily rebuild or regenerate a part or the entire human organism. All the instrumental biological potentialities (see C:1 through C:4 and also E:2) necessary to do so are available to the Holy Spirit.

F:1:d—Instrumentality of the Body by The Holy Spirit

While our rational human nature now is the same human nature possessed by Adam and Eve thousands of years ago, it exists in two very different states. The first being our First Parents in a state of Original Justice. In other words, when Adam and Eve had not yet committed the first (aka original) sin. In this state, the corporeal body was in complete subjection[97] to the spiritual soul, in which dwelt the Holy Spirit. As such, man would never experience death, pain, hunger, fear, the pains of childbirth, etc. After Adam and Eve’s disobedience, the corporeal part of our composite nature rebelled against the spirit leading to all the consequences of Original Sin.
The science cited in C:1-4 and E:2 above present us with the instrumental biological potentialities of the body that can be used by a spiritual soul in which dwells the Holy Spirit. The combination of these biological components could certainly replace/regenerate a rib taken by God from which to form Eve.
Citing Fr. Romanus Cessario, Tyler Pellegrin writes, “No believer can advance without the aid of the Holy Spirit” so “the gifts remain an indispensable complement to the moral and theological virtues.”[98]
Speaking of virtues, Hildegard tells us that virtues work through the body and soul together;[99] “a virtue is a divine quality that.  . . . fully incarnates itself [emphasis added].”[100] What does this mean? It means that as the spiritual soul is purified, so also is the body. The higher powers of the spiritual soul are not fenced off from the lower powers (which control the body). Christopher West tells us that the body gives expression to the experiences of the heart.[101] God who is perfect justice never sends the soul to Heaven and the body to hell, or vice versa. The body must accurately express the human spirit. All the above is another way of saying that the spiritual soul is substantial form of the body.
Tyler Pellegrin continues:
So in Christ’s soul is grace “possessed in its highest possible excellence and in its greatest possible extension to all its effects,”[102] not by the hypostatic union alone, but by the Spirit’s presence in His humanity, which necessarily follows his Incarnation.  . . . The Divine Person of the Son receives the Spirit’s indwelling perfectly and without measure, but not essentially since his humanity remains a created nature that is not essentially ordered to divine life.  . . .  Aquinas does not see Christ’s humanity as an instrumental cause of grace to the faithful, but merely as a dispositive cause. Christ, as man, merely disposes humanity to receive grace from God by his perfect human sacrifice and by his moral exemplarity. Later, Aquinas realizes that Christ’s humanity does not merely dispose us to receive grace from God, but grace only flows to us through Christ’s humanity: Christ’s humanity is a true instrument of His Divinity.[103]
This instrumentality of the body is not limited to only Christ’s humanity. It is what our bodies become (instruments of grace, including graces that produce physical effects on our biology, as will be explained further below) when we are made members of the Mystical Body of Christ through Baptism. In the first letter of Peter, we read, “As generous distributors of God’s manifold grace, put your gifts [of the Holy Spirit’s graces] at the service of one another, each in the measure he has received” (1 Pt 4:10).
John tells us,
On the last day of the feast, the great day, Jesus stood up and proclaimed, “If any one thirst, let him come to me and drink. He who believes in me, as the scripture has said, ‘Out of his heart shall flow rivers of living water.’ ” Now this he said about the Spirit, which those who believed in him were to receive; for as yet the Spirit had not been given, because Jesus was not yet glorified” (Jn 7:37-39).
Francois-Xavier Durrwell writes: The gift of the Spirit tends to make the believer what Christ is: ‘a life-giving spirit’. Grace enables him to be a source of grace; each believer shares in the sanctification of others according to the power of the Spirit who sanctifies him. In Christ he shares in the union of the Trinity.[104]
By examining St. Paul’s words, we gain a deeper understanding of the Mystical Body. He writes:
Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone, in whom the whole structure is joined together and grows into a holy temple in the Lord; in whom you also are built into it [emphasis added] for a dwelling place of God in the Spirit” (Eph 2:20-22).
That which grew into a holy Temple was his body—his soul didn’t grow and his divinity didn’t grow either. The reason Paul says “grew” is this: through Baptism, we become living stones built into that Temple (1 Pt 2:5), thus making it grow. There are not billions and billions of temples. There is only one rebuilt Temple, i.e., Jesus’ resurrected body (Jn. 2:19-22). Remember, the Old Covenant foreshadows the New Covenant. In the Old Covenant, there was always only one Temple at any given time. In the New Covenant, there is also only one Temple, which we are built into to offer spiritual sacrifices pleasing to the Father.

F:2—Option 2: The Holy Spirit Miraculously and Instantaneously Caused Adam’s Rib to Regenerate Itself.

F:2:a—All Miracles are Through the Power of the Holy Spirit

All miracles, e.g., healings, resurrections from the dead, and exorcisms are through the power of the Holy Spirit. Aquinas writes:
The Holy [Spirit] provides sufficiently for the Church in matters profitable unto salvation, to which purpose the gratuitous graces are directed. Now just as the knowledge which a man receives from God needs to be brought to the knowledge of others through the gift of tongues and the grace of the word, so too the word uttered needs to be confirmed in order that it be rendered credible. This is done by the working of miracles, according to Mark 16:20, “And confirming the word with signs that followed:” and reasonably so. For it is natural to man to arrive at the intelligible truth through its sensible effects. Wherefore just as man led by his natural reason is able to arrive at some knowledge of God through His natural effects, so is he brought to a certain degree of supernatural knowledge of the objects of faith by certain supernatural effects which are called miracles. Therefore the working of miracles belongs to a gratuitous grace.[105]
Before going further, we need to understand that there has been only one creation event that could be described as ex nihilo, i.e., made without employing any pre-existing matter. That event is the Big Bang. Since that event, everything else was made from some other, but not necessarily visible (such as photons), matter. We could call this primordial matter. The biblical phrase: There is nothing new under the sun [the biblical meaning of Eccl 1:9 has nothing to do with the creation event], is an apt description of the reason for my belief in the hypothesis identified as Option 2.
It is worth noting that science has already achieved the ability to reprogram somatic cells into pluripotent cells which than then be differentiated into any human tissue cell. If man can do it, can we even entertain a doubt that the Holy Spirit could easily do it perfectly?[106]

F:2:b—Is God Continually Creating or Is it Instantaneous?

St. Hildegard of Bingen spoke of creation thus:
Everything God has done was done by the Deity before the beginning of time in the divine present [including the humanity of the Son of God]. In the pure and holy Godhead all visible and invisible things shine before all eternity without a temporal moment and without the elapse of time.  . . . When God said, “Let it be done!” things were enclosed at once within their forms.  . . . And each divine work, once it has been enclosed within its body, is complete in the function that is appropriate for it. For the holy Godhead knew in advance how it would assist that work, serving it with knowledge and comprehension.[107]
While all creation was formed at the very moment God the Father said, “Let it be done,” it revealed itself only gradually throughout creation.
To help us understand the phrase, “enclosed at once within their forms,” Norman Geisler says, “The word ‘form’ (morphē; trans. ‘nature’ in Phil. 2:6-7), eikōn means the very substance or essential embodiment of something or someone.”[108] Rational Man’s substance is a composite of both body and spiritual soul. Consequently, it is highly improbable that when the Father expressed the fiat, Jesus’ soul was created but not his glorified (but not yet mortal) soul. As such Jesus’ humanity would have been defective.
Durrwell writes:
The Spirit is God in his characteristic attribute, God himself in his infinite action. For Christian faith the Spirit is a person; it can, therefore, be said that he is the personification of action, that he is the “working” member or person in the Trinity.[109] Whenever, then, God is active, when he creates, intervenes in history, enters through the incarnation into creation, raises Christ from the dead, establishes a covenant between himself and a people.  . . . it is in the Spirit that all this is brought about, for the Spirit is the power and action of God.[110]
So, let us provide a little more detail about how the Holy Spirit multiplies (as opposed to makes/adds new organisms) biological components or whole organisms. However, before going further we should note that all three Persons of the Trinity are not bound by time. Thus, all of the biological processes discussed below, such as billions of cell divisions, would likely appear in created time as an instantaneous (or near–instantaneous) event.

F:2:c—The Modalities of the Holy Spirit’s Biological Miracles

I have a hypothesis concerning miracles accomplished through the Holy Spirit in which missing biological components of an organism or, alternatively, the growth of a new organism occurs. The former would describe the replacement/regeneration of an existing biological component. The letter “F” below would be an example of that phenomenon. Letters “A” through “E” describe the latter.
Let’s look at some examples:
A) Satan tempted Jesus to turn stones into bread. Satan is evil, but he is not stupid. He would not tempt Jesus this way unless he knew Jesus could do it (Lk 4:3, Mt. 4:3);
B) God turned dust into gnats (Ex 8:16-17);
C) God tells us he could turn stones into children of Abraham, i.e., members of the Chosen Nation (Mt 3:9, Lk 3:8);
D). The feeding of the five thousand (Mt 14:13–21; Mk 6:31–44; Lk 9:12–17; Jn 6:1–14). And also, the feeding of the four thousand (Mt 15:32-38, Mk 8:1-9);
E). Jesus creates wine (an organic substance) from water meant for ritual purification; and,
F). In the Garden of Gethsemane, Peter cuts off the ear of the high priest’s slave. All four Gospels record the event. However, it is only in Luke (22:50-51) that it is revealed that Jesus healed/replaced the ear. The Roman guards were anxious to arrest Jesus and avoid dangerous crowds/mobs, so I don’t think they would be willing to wait around for twenty to thirty minutes while Jesus waited for the ear to gradually regrow.
Below are three types of biological miracles listed and explained:
1). The Holy Spirit forms new organisms from primordial (aka prime) matter. The Spirit forms the nucleated cell from dust and then multiplies the cells through mitosis and meiosis, i.e., multiplication. Differentiation of the cells would be guided by the spiritual soul.** Examples include A, B, C, and E above. All organisms are created from the dust (DNA consisting of minerals that geologists define as rock/stone/dust) of the earth. In each of the four examples, the primordial matter is dust/stone.
Important note regarding example “E” above: According to Levitical Law, the water in the six stone jars could not have contained any preexisting organic matter. If it did, the water would be considered impure and could not be used for the purification rite. Not just the water, but also the Levitical priest who had declared it to be pure.[111] However, since stone could not be made ritually impure, particles of dust/stone could have broken off from the jars or taken in with the water from the cistern or spring, then employed as primordial material from which the grapes were formed. See also The Wedding Feast of Cana, Part I of III.
**It is my hypothesis that the upper powers of the spiritual soul would not generate heat. However, the lower powers of the spiritual soul (aka the soul—which directs all the functions of the human body—within the spiritual soul) would generate heat because it consists of created light, i.e., light that exists in time.
St. Hildegard seems to support the hypothesis. She writes:
The soul has a fiery nature, we are warm-blooded creatures. Its paths are windy in nature. The soul inhales the breath of life into the body and then expels it.  . . . Thus, the whole body is constructed with the greatest sensitivity so that we can be alive, so that we can control all five senses of the body with their cluster of functions. If that warmth were not discharged from the body, the fire of the soul might burn the body.[112]
2). The Holy Spirit uses existing differentiated or stem cells, multiplying them to regenerate the missing portion of a biological component or to multiply an entire organism. In “F” above, the Holy Spirit used cells from the uncut portion of the ear that was cut off by Peter to regenerate the servant’s ear. In “D”, the Holy Spirit used the genetic material from the fishes and loaves in the baskets to multiply them so that they were of sufficient quantity to feed all the people.
Here is a hypothetical instrumental tool the Holy Spirit, or the spiritual soul, may use to achieve tissue and bone healing. Mesenchymal cells are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate as progenitor cells for all types of connective tissue. One of those tissue could be the epidermal cap necessary for blastema formation. These stem cells are present in the bone marrow of the rib, and research has indicated a positive contributory role in rib regeneration.[113]
3). In cases of healing that do not involve regeneration or multiplication, the power of the Spirit simply causes the return of every malfunctioning cell to its perfect biological function.
I need to make an important distinction. In the above, I am not implying that the means by which the Holy Spirit performs healing and multiplication of physical substances through Gratuitous graces is also how Jesus’ glorified (yet still physical, but not mortal) is able to be present on all the altars across the globe at the same time.

F:2:d—My Pick for the Type of Rib Regeneration Used in Genesis 2

In the context of the wording in Genesis 2, there is no indication that Adam and Eve were born from animal parents. There is ample evidence to prove they were not. I have given extensive reasoning for this belief in Parts I-III of “Mitochondrial Eve: Should Christians be Worried.” However, Part III is the most pertinent for this topic. It can be found here. Furthermore, there is no language indicating that Adam and Eve existed as infants. In fact, Scripture tells us that prior to Adam, there was no man to till the earth (Gen 2:5).
Consequently, of the two possibilities (F:1 and F:2) for the regeneration of Adam’s rib, I’m inclined to believe the second—the Holy Spirit miraculously and seemingly instantaneously caused Adam’s rib to regenerate itself—is most likely.


[1] Scott Hahn, ed., “Book of Genesis,” Catholic Bible Dictionary (New York; London; Toronto; Sydney; Auckland: Doubleday, 2009), 308.
[2] Pope Pius XII, Encyclical Concerning Some False Opinions Threatening to Undermine the Foundations of Catholic Doctrine Humani Generis (Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, August 12, 1950), nos. 21, 32, 38.
[3] As described in Scott Hahn, ed., Catholic Bible Dictionary  (New York; London; Toronto; Sydney; Auckland: Doubleday, 2009), 282–285.
[4] F. B. Huey Jr., “Genealogy,” in Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1988), 845.
[5] Scott Hahn, ed., “Genealogy,” Catholic Bible Dictionary (New York; London; Toronto; Sydney; Auckland: Doubleday, 2009), 306.
[6] Cf. John Hardon, “Person,” Modern Catholic Dictionary, (Bardstown: Eternal Life Publishing, 2008), 417.
[7] S.T. Kuwahara, M.A. Serowoky, V. Vakhshori, N. Tripuraneni, N.V. Hegde, J.R. Lieberman, J.G. Crump, & F.V. Mariani, “Sox9+ messenger cells orchestrate large-scale skeletal regeneration in the mammalian rib,” eLife 8, e40715 (April 15, 2019): 2, https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.40715.
[8] cf. Robert O. Becker, & Andrew Marino, Electromagnetism & Life, (Belcher, LA: Cassandra, 2010), Kindle Edition, 41, 42.
[9] Robert O. Becker, Electromagnetism & Life, 39.
[10] Keith L. Moore and Arthur F. Dalley, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 4th ed. (Philadelphia & Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999), 60.
[11] Moore and Dalley, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 64.
[12] Cf. Franco Serafini, A Cardiologist Examines Jesus: The Stunning Science Behind Eucharistic Miracles, (Manchester: Sophia Institute Press, 2021), Kindle Edition, 126.
[13] B. Libet, and R.W. Gerard, “Steady potential fields and neurone activity,” J. Neurophysiol 4 (1941): 438 ; B. Libet, and R.W. Gerard, “An analysis of some correlates of steady potentials in mammalian cortex,” Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol 14 (1962): 445.
[14] Cf. J.R. Sheen, A. Mabrouk, V.V. Garla, “Fracture Healing Overview,” 2023 Apr 8, In: StatPearls [Internet] (Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan–. PMID: 31869142.
[15] Robert O. Becker, Electromagnetism & Life, 25-26.
[16] H.S. Burr, “The meaning of bioelectric potentials,” Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, (1944): 353.
[17] R. O. Becker, “The bioelectric field pattern in the salamander and its simulation by an electronic analog,” IRE Transactions on Medical Electrons ME-7, no. 3, (1960): 202, https://doi.org/10.1109/iret-me.1960.5008048.
[18] Becker, & Andrew Marino, Electromagnetism & Life, 29-30.
[19] L. Leppik, K. M. C. Oliveira, M. B. Bhavsar, & J. H. Barker, “Electrical stimulation in bone tissue engineering treatments,” European journal of trauma and emergency surgery : official publication of the European Trauma Society, 46, no. 2 (2020): 231–244, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-020-01324-1.
[20] American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), “Electricity sparks interest in new technologies and cosmeceuticals for aging skin,” ScienceDaily, 03/29/2011, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110318204438.htm.
[21] A. V. Zhirmunskii, “On the parabiotic nature of the reaction of mammalian skeletal muscle to denervation,” Fiziol. zh USSR 44 (1958): 577 (in Russian).
[22] Marcus Singer, “Induction of regeneration in the forelimb of post meta morphic frog by augmentation of the nerve supply,” J. Exp. Zool. 126 (1954): 419.
[23] Robert O. Becker, Electromagnetism & Life, 38-39.
[24] Robert O. Becker, Electromagnetism & Life, 42 ; cf. Randolph N. Christensen, and Roy A. Tassava, “Apical epithelial cap morphology and fibronectin gene expression in regenerating axolotl limbs,” Dev. Dyn. 217, no.2 (2000): 216-224. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(200002)217:2<216::AID-DVDY8>3.0.CO;2-8 ; Randolph N. Christensen, and Roy A. Tassava, “Apical epithelial cap morphology and fibronectin gene expression in regenerating axolotl limbs,” Dev. Dyn. 217, no.2 (2000): 216-224. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(200002)217:2<216::AID-DVDY8>3.0.CO;2-8.
[25] Robert O. Becker, and James M. Cullen, “Neural-Epidermal Juxtaposition and Its Effect on Limb Regeneration,” In Mechanisms of Growth Control, ed. R.O. Becker (Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publishing, 1981), 479-485.
[26] Becker, Mechanisms of Growth Control, 479-485.
[27] Becker, Mechanisms of Growth Control, 479-485.
[28] Robert O. Becker, Electromagnetism & Life, 43.
[29] Robert O. Becker, Electromagnetism & Life, pp. 37, 39-40, 41-43, 50-51.
[30] D.A. Neufeld, S.K. Westly, and B.J. Clarke, “The electrical potential gradient in regenerating tubularia: spatial and temporal characteristics,” Growth 42 (1978): 347.
[31] Robert O. Becker, Electromagnetism & Life, 39.
[32] Keith L. Moore and Arthur F. Dalley, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 4th ed. (Philadelphia & Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999), 38-51.
[33] Robert O. Becker, Electromagnetism & Life, 36.
[34] R.O. Becker, “Some observations indicating the possibility of longitudinal charge carrier flow in peripheral nerves,” in Biological Prototypes and Synthetic Systems, eds. E.E. Bernard, and M.R. Kare, (New York: Plenum, 1962), 31-37.
[35] Robert O. Becker, Electromagnetism & Life, 31-32.
[36] Frank J. Sheed, Theology and Sanity (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1993), 183, 191-192.
[37] St. Catherine of Siena, The Dialogue, trans. Suzanne Noffke, O.P. (Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1980), 86.
[38] Dr. Franco Serafini, A Cardiologist Examines Jesus: The Stunning Science Behind Eucharistic Miracles, (Manchester: Sophia Institute Press, 2021), Kindle Edition, 126.
[39] Thomas Aquinas, Commentary on the Four Gospels, Vol. IV, (Oxford, John Henry Parker; J. G. F. and J. Rivington, London. MDCCCXLI.,1841). Pg. 240.
[40] Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias, trans. Mother Columba Hart and Jane Bishop (Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1990), 248.
[41] Jill Seladi-Schulman, PhD, “What is the Vagus Nerve,” ed. John Bassham, Healthline, Feb 14, 2023, https://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/vagus-nerve.
[42] Andrew Marino, Electromagnetism & Life, 117.
[43] H.H. Hoffman, and H.N. Schnitzlein, “The numbers of nerve fibers in the vagus nerve of man,” Anat. Rec., 139, (1961): 429–435, https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.1091390312.
[44] Oliver G. Cameron, Visceral Sensory Neuroscience: Interoception, ISBN: 0-19-513601-2 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 108-109.
[45] Grace Wade, “Unravelling the secrets of the vagus nerve will revolutionise [sic] medicine,” August 22, 2023, New Scientist, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg25934530-500-unravelling-the-secrets-of-the-vagus-nerve-will-revolutionise-medicine/.
[46] Grace Wade, “Unravelling the secrets of the vagus nerve will revolutionise [sic] medicine,” August 22, 2023, New Scientist, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg25934530-500-unravelling-the-secrets-of-the-vagus-nerve-will-revolutionise-medicine/.
[47] Robert O. Becker, Electromagnetism & Life, 43.
[48] Y. Kawanabe, S. Nagata, “A new method of costal cartilage harvest for total auricular reconstruction: part I. avoidance and prevention of intraoperative and postoperative complications and problems,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 117 (2006): 2011–2018, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000210015.28620.1c, PMID: 16651978.
[49] I.R. Munro, and B. Guyuron, “Split-rib cranioplasty,” Annals of Plastic Surgery 7 (1981): 341–346, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000637-198111000-00001, PMID: 7332200.
[50] M.K. Srour, J.L. Fogel, K.T. Yamaguchi, A.P. Montgomery, A.K. Izuhara, et al., “Natural large-scale regeneration of rib cartilage in a mouse model,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 30 (2015): 297–308, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2326, PMID: 25142306.
[51] S.T. Kuwahara, M.A. Serowoky, V. Vakhshori, N. Tripuraneni, N.V. Hegde, J.R. Lieberman, J.G. Crump, & F.V. Mariani, “Sox9+ messenger cells orchestrate large-scale skeletal regeneration in the mammalian rib,” eLife, 8, e40715 (April 15, 2019): 1-2, https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.40715.
[52] Vladimir L. Voeikov, “Biological Significance of Active Oxygen-Dependent Processes in Aqueous Systems,” Water and the Cell, ed. Gerald H. Pollack, Ivan L. Cameron, Denys N. Wheatly (The Netherlands: Springer, 2006), 286-288.
[53] InformedHealth.org [Internet], “In brief: What does blood do?” (Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), updated 3/16/2023), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279392/.
[54] Werner R. Loewenstein, The Touchstone of Life: Molecular Information, Cell Communication, and the Foundations of Life, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), Kindle Edition, Locations 123-132.
[55] Loewenstein, Touchstone of Life, Locations 320, 368.
[56] Loewenstein, Touchstone of Life, Locations 627-628, 868.
[57] Cameron, Visceral Sensory Neuroscience: Interoception, 3.
[58] K. Prank, et al., “Coding of time-varying hormonal signals in intracellular calcium spike trains,” V Pac Symp Biocomput, 1998: 633-644.
[59] C. Schofl, K. Prank, and G. Brabant, “Pulsatile hormone secretion for control of target organs,” Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 145 nos.17-18 (1995): 431-435.
[60] C. Schofl, et al., “Frequency and amplitude enhancement of calcium transients by cyclic AMP in hepatocytes,” Biochem J, 273(Pt 3) (1991): 799-802.
[61] cf. Alan D. Martin & R. G. McCulloch, “Bone dynamics: Stress, strain and fracture,” Journal of Sports Sciences 5, no.2 (1987), 155-163, https://doi.org/10.1080/02640418708729773.
[62] St. Gertrude the Great, Life and Revelations of St. Gertrude the Great, trans. Poor Clares of Kenmare, (Charlotte: TAN Books, 2002), Kindle Edition, 303-304.
[63] Dr. Franco Serafini, A Cardiologist Examines Jesus: The Stunning Science Behind Eucharistic Miracles, (Manchester: Sophia Institute Press, 2021), Kindle Edition, p.139.
[64] Serafini, A Cardiologist Examines Jesus, 138.
[65] Antony Netikat, 100 Eucharistic Miracles: Proved by Science–Approved by Church, (Bengaluru, India: ATC Publishers, 2017), Kindle Edition, pp. 238-239.
[66] S.E. Pagnotta, F. Bruni, “The Glassy State of Water: A Stop and Go Device for Biological Processes,” Water and the Cell, ed. Gerald H. Pollack, Ivan L. Cameron, Denys N. Wheatly (The Netherlands: Springer, 2006), 100, 93-112.
[67] L.V. Beloussov, V.L. Voeikov. “From Mitogenetic Rays to Biophotons.” Biophotonics and Coherent Systems in Biology, ed. L.V. Beloussov, V.L. Voeikov, V.S. Martynyuk, Kindle Edition, Locations 92-94.
[68] Beloussov, Mitogenetic Rays, 105-107.
[69] Beloussov, Mitogenetic Rays, 145-147.
[70] Beloussov, Mitogenetic Rays, 171-172.
[71] Werner R. Loewenstein, The Touchstone of Life: Molecular Information, Cell Communication, and the Foundations of Life, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), Kindle Edition, 14.
[72] Aquinas, ST, I, Q. 99 A.1., co.
[73] R.J. Ruch, “Intercellular communication, homeostasis, and toxicology,” Toxicol Sci. 68, no.2 (2002 Aug): 265-256.
[74] David Muehsam, & Carlo Ventura, “Life rhythm as a symphony of oscillatory patterns: electromagnetic energy and sound vibration modulates gene expression for biological signaling and healing,” Glob Adv Health Med 3, no.2 (2014 Mar):40-55. https://doi.org/10.7453/gahmj.2014.008. PMID: 24808981; PMCID: PMC4010966.
[75] Catholic Church, Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd Ed. (Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1997), n. 368.
[76] CCC, n. 2563.
[77] John Paul II, “Original Unity of Man and Woman,” in general audience given November 7, 1979, n. 2, reprinted with permission from L'Osservatore Romano (Vatican: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1979), https://www.ewtn.com/catholicism/library/original-unity-of-man-and-woman-8543.
[78] John Paul II, Man and Woman He Created Them: A Theology of the Body, trans. Michael Waldstein (Boston: Pauline Books & Media, 2006), 552 ; The rib in Scripture equates with life. In Leviticus 17:14, we learn that life is in the blood, and blood is pumped through the body via the heart.
[79] Francois-Xavier Durrwell, Holy Spirit of God, trans. Sister Benedict Davies, Revised Edition (Cincinnati: Servant Books, 2006), 18-19.
[80] John Paul II, Original Unity, n. 2.
[81] Colin Hinrichsen and Peter Lisowski, Anatomy Workbook: Thorax and Abdomen, Vol 2, (Hackensack: World Scientific Publishing Co., 2007), 18.
[82] John Paul II, in his general audience of Nov. 7, 1979, “Return to the Subject of Human Love in the Divine Plan,” Theology of the Body (Third Millennium Media L.L.C., The Faith Database L.L.C., 2008), note 3.
[83] John Paul II, Subject of Human Love, notes 2-3.
[84] Francois-Xavier Durrwell, Holy Spirit of God (original English translation published by Geoffrey Chapman, a division of Cassell, Ltd., 1986; reprint published by Servant Books, Cincinnati, OH, 2006), 18-19.
[85] Robert Cunningham, Jerry Dybdal, and Ron Miller trans, Hildegard of Bingen’s Book of Divine Works: With Letters and Songs, ed. Matthew Fox (Santa Fe: Bear & Company, 1987), Kindle Edition, Locations 2380-2381.
[86] John Paul II, Original Unity, footnote 4.
[87] John Paul II, Original Unity, footnote 4.
[88] Cf. John Hardon, “Person,” Modern Catholic Dictionary, (Bardstown: Eternal Life Publishing, 2008), 417.
[89] Hardon, “Person,” 417.
[90] Cf. CCC, n. 221.
[91] John Paul II, “Reconciliation and the Journey to The Father,” in general audience given September 15, 1999, n. 4 (Vatican: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1999), https://www.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/audiences/1999/documents/hf_jp-ii_aud_15091999.html.
[92] Charles Sebastian Ritchie, “St. Philip Romolo Neri.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12 (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911), http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12018b.htm.
[93] Glenn Dallaire, “St Gemma Galgani.” January 21, 2013, http://www.stgemmagalgani.com/2008/11/heart-on-fire-with-love-of-god-st-gemma.html.
[96] Carmen Mateescu, Georgeta Alecu, Wilhelm Kappel, “Electromagnetic Field as Environment Factor Affecting Human Health,” Revue Roumaine Des Sciences Techniques – Électrotechn. et Énerg. 53, Suppl. (2008): 114, 116.
[97] Frank J. Sheed, Theology and Sanity (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1993), 183, 191-192.
[98] Romanus Cessario, O.P., Christian Faith and the Theological Life (Washington D.C.: CUA Press, 1996), 163 ; cited in Tyler Pellegrin, “The Wind Blows Where It Wills: Understanding the Gifts of the Holy Spirit,” (San Francisco: Homiletic & Pastoral Review, Published by Ignatius Press, April 26, 2024), https://www.hprweb.com/2024/04/the-wind-blows-where-it-wills-understanding-the-gifts-of-the-holy-spirit/#fnref-30842-25.
[99] Hildegard, Scivias, 37.
[100] Hildegard, Scivias, 345.
[101] Christopher West, Theology of the Body Explained (Boston: Pauline Books and Media, 2003), 94.
[102] Aquinas, ST III, q. 7, a. 10.
[103] Tyler Pellegrin, “The Wind Blows Where It Wills: Understanding the Gifts of the Holy Spirit,” (San Francisco: Homiletic & Pastoral Review, published by Ignatius Press, April 26, 2024), https://www.hprweb.com/2024/04/the-wind-blows-where-it-wills-understanding-the-gifts-of-the-holy-spirit/#fnref-30842-25.
[104] Francois-Xavier Durrwell, Holy Spirit of God (original English translation published by Geoffrey Chapman, a division of Cassell, Ltd., 1986; reprint published by Servant Books, Cincinnati, OH, 2006), 110-111.
[105] Aquinas, ST, II-II, Q. 178, A. 1, co.
[106] Lei Ye, Cory Swingen, & Jianyi Zhang, “Induced pluripotent stem cells and their potential for basic and clinical sciences,” Current Cardiology Reviews 9, no.1 (2013): 63–72, https://doi.org/10.2174/157340313805076278.
[107] Hildegard of Bingen, Hildegard of Bingen’s Book of Divine Works: With Letters and Songs, (Santa Fe: Bear & Company, English version 1987), Kindle Edition, 575-590.
[108] Norman L. Geisler, “Colossians,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 2 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 672-674.
[109] St. Cyril of Alexandria says, “The Spirit is the power and natural action of the divine substance. He performs all the works of God.” Thesaurus, assert. 34 (PG 75, 580; cf. 72, 608).
[110] Durrwell, Holy Spirit of God, 14-15.
[111] Zack Shavin, “Why ‘stone’ water jars at the wedding in Cana of Galilee?,” Land of Israel Tours, http://www.landofisraeltours.com/cana-water-jar/, February 01, 2016.
[112] Hildegard, Book of Divine Works, Location 2213.
[113] Doren Cohn Yakubovich, D. Sheyn, M. Bez, et al., “Systemic administration of mesenchymal stem cells combined with parathyroid hormone therapy synergistically regenerates multiple rib fractures,” Stem Cell Res Ther 8, no.51 (2017), https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-017-0502-9.
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